United Nations: Objectives and Roles of United Nations

The United Nations Organization (UNO) is the worldwide global association of sovereign free states. It was set up on 24 October 1945. The obliteration brought about continuous World War constrained individuals to build up a worldwide association for getting the world far from war and for fellowship and collaboration among every one of the countries. The UNO was intended to save the people in the future from the scourge of battle by advancing International harmony and security. 

After the end of the Second World War, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union (Former USSR) and some different states held a few gatherings and wanted to set up an association for protecting harmony and advancing social, financial, and political participation among all countries. Because of their endeavors, the United Nations Organization appeared in 1945 when the agents of 51 countries marked the Charter of the UNO at San Francisco. 

The name “United Nations” was proposed by US President Franklin Roosevelt. It was first utilized in the Declaration of the United Nations made on January 1, 1942. At the San Francisco Conference, it was collectively embraced as the name of the new worldwide association as an accolade for the late President of the United States. India had not accomplished its autonomy by then, at that point, but then it became one of the originating individuals from the United Nations. 

All countries promised themselves to the UN Charter. In the UN Charter, they vowed “to save the succeeding ages from the scourge of war” They additionally vowed to “advance social advancement and better principles of life.” The Charter came into power on October 24, 1945, after a larger part of the signatories kept their instruments of endorsement. From that point forward each year, 24th October is commended as the United Nations Day. 

The UN Charter: 

The Charter is the Constitution of the United Nations Organization. It was made in October 1944 by the Dumbarton Oaks (Washington DC) Conference. It sets out the guidelines which oversee the association and elements of the UNO and every one of its organs. The Charter has a Preamble, 19 Chapters, and 111 Articles that clarify the reasons, standards, organs, and working techniques for the UN. 

(A) Purposes of the UTS: 

The reasons for the UN are characterized in Article 1 of the UN Charter. These are: 

1. To keep up with global harmony and security and to find sufficient ways to turn away conflicts. 

2. To foster well-disposed relations among countries based on fairness. 

3. To accomplish global co-activity in tackling worldwide issues of a financial, social, social or compassionate person. 

4. To be a middle for orchestrating the activities of countries in the accomplishment of these normal closures. 

(B) Principles of the UN: 

The standards are the necessary resources to accomplish the destinations of the UN. 

These are contained in Article 2 of the UN Charter: 

1. All the part states are equivalent. 

2. The part states will satisfy their commitments to the UN sincerely. 

3. The party states will resolve their global questions by serene means. 

4. The part states will abstain in their worldwide relations from the danger or utilization of power against some other state. 

5. The part states will provide for the UN each help with any move it makes as per the UN Charter. 

6. The states which are not individuals from the UN, ought to likewise act as per these standards for the upkeep of worldwide harmony and security. 

7. No part state will meddle in the inward issues of some other state. 

(C) Headquarters of UN: 

The central command of the UN is situated at First Avenue, UN Plaza, New York, USA. The UN structure remains on a 17 section land plot of land given, by John D Rockefeller on Manhattan Island, a suburb of New York. It is a 39-story building which can house around 8000 representatives. 

(D) The UN Flag: 

The UN General Assembly embraced the UN Flag on October 20, 1947. The white UN symbol is superimposed on a light blue foundation. The image comprises of the worldwide guide projected from the North Pole and embraced in two Olive Branches (image of harmony) 

(E) Membership of the UN: 

Under the UN Charter, enrollment of this worldwide association is available to all “harmony cherishing” states who acknowledge the commitments of the association as contained in the Charter. New individuals are conceded by a 66% vote of the UN General Assembly and on the proposals of the UN Security Council. The current strength of UNO is 191. 

(F) Languages utilized by the UNO:

The UN directs its business in six authority dialects; Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish. 

(G) UN Organs and their jobs: 

The Charter of the UN sets up six guidelines for UN organs. These are: 

1. The UN General Assembly: 

The General Assembly is the most noteworthy deliberative organ of the UN. It is likewise called the World Parliament of Nations. Every state sends five agents to it; however, each state has just one vote. The meeting of the General Assembly is held on the third Tuesday in the long stretch of September consistently. 

The first day of the season of the meeting stands assigned as the International Day of Peace. The UN General Assembly holds consultations on all issues which are identified with the Charter of the United Nations. It likewise endorses the yearly spending plan of the UN. It’s is situated in New York (the USA). 

2. The UN Security Council: 

The Security Council is the leading body of the UN. It is classified as “the PowerHouse” of the UN. It is comprised of 15 individuals out of whom 5 are extremely durable individuals, each with a rejection power. These are the USA, Russia, China, France, and the United Kingdom. Staying 10 are non-super durable individuals who are chosen by the General Assembly by a 2/3 larger part for a term of two years. 

The choices of the Security Council are taken by a greater part and vote however every one of its five long-lasting individuals has the option to reject its choices. Under the “joining for harmony goal” embraced in November 1950, the UN General Assembly can guide the Security Council to represent any danger to global harmony by making an aggregate security move against animosity. The Security Council is an amazing organ of the UN. It’s is situated at New York in the USA. India presently needs to turn into a super durable individual from the UN Security Council. 

3. The Economic and Social Council: 

The Economic and Social Council has 54 individuals, who are chosen by the UN General Assembly for a term of three years. 33% of individuals (18) out of these resign each year and in their place, new individuals are chosen. This Council helps the UN in taking care of the financial and social issues of the world. It is additionally administered by some other UN bodies. It’s is situated in New York in the USA. 

4. The Trusteeship Council: 

The Trusteeship Council directs the organization of those retrogressive and questioned regions, the obligation regarding the advancement of which has been taken over by the UNO. Aside from the long-lasting individuals from the Security Council, the controlling nations of the trust domains are its individuals. These are chosen for a long time by the UN General Assembly; the Trusteeship Council screens the advancement of trust domains. 

5. The International Court of Justice (ICJ): 

It is the legal body of the UN. It is additionally called “the World Court.” It comprises 15 adjudicators who are chosen by the General Assembly on the suggestions of the UN Security Council; each judge of ICJ holds a residency of 9 years. It’s 33% adjudicators resign following three years and in their place, newly appointed authorities are chosen. 

The International Court of Justice gives its decision on such questions/cases which are brought to it by the concerned states by their shared assent. It offers a warning viewpoint on legitimate issues to the organs and exceptional organizations of the UN when requested. It is situated at The Hague (Netherlands). 

6. The UN Secretariat: 

The Secretariat is the managerial organ of the UN. It carries out the strategies and choices taken up by the organs of the UN. It comprises worldwide government employees who, while serving the UN, should fail to remember their public loyalties and work for the interests of the UN. There are around 4000 representatives of the UN Secretariat. 

Their compensation is paid by the UN. The Secretariat General is the top of the Secretariat. He is known as the “Guard dog of the UN”. He is delegated for a term of long term by the UN General Assembly on the suggestion of the Security Council. As of now. Mr. Ban Ki Moon is the UN Secretary-General. 

Specialized Agencies of the UN: 

The Specialized Agencies of the UN have been assuming a huge part in executing the arrangements, choices, and projects of the UN. These are caring for explicit regions and issues like exploration, well-being, work, exchange, culture, basic liberties, and so forth A portion of the significant specific offices of the UN are: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), World Labor Organization (WLO), World Health Organization (WHO), International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), UN International Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF), UN Environment Program (UNEP), and others

Role of the United Nations:

To maintain international peace and security has been the prime responsibility of the UN. During about 64 years of its existence, it has done valuable work in this direction. It has done a fairly good amount of work in the settlement of several controversies, which could have posed serious threats to world peace. Along with it, the UN has contributed greatly in the field of decolonization, human rights, and disarmament.

However, the UN has several weaknesses and limitations:

(i) It lacks adequate funds to meet all its objectives.

(ii) The veto power of the five permanent members of the Security Council has virtually left this powerful UN organ at the mercy of the “Big-Five” i.e. USA, UK, Russia, France, and China. Hence, the need is to reform the UN system from within and outside.

(iii) The urgent need is to democratize the UN. Democracy and transparency must characterize the Working of all the organs of the UN. The Security Council needs to be expanded and restructured. Almost all countries now advocate the need for an increase in the permanent and non-permanent members of the UN Security Council.

There has been a big increase in the number of members of the UN. As such, the UN Security Council needs an expansion for giving due representation to all continents and major powers of the world.

(iv) The issue of Veto Power needs to be debated and amended.

(v) The General Assembly should be made stronger. It should be turned into a forum for consensus on important global issues.

(vi) The voice of the smaller nations should carry equal weight in all UN decisions.

(vii) The rules and practices of the UN institutions need reform in the light of past experience.

(viii) The organization and the functioning of the Economic and Social Council and the Secretariat demand a complete overhauling.

(ix) The UN peacekeeping role needs to be restructured technically and financially.

Recently, the US War against Taliban & Al Qaeda in Afghanistan and the US-War in Iraq have put a question mark on the relevance of the UN. The US operators in Iraq do not enjoy the sanction of the UNO. Further, the UN has not been successful in securing disarmament as well as in preventing the outbreak of local wars and terrorism in various parts of the world.

However, this does not mean that the UN has failed to serve the international community. It has successfully prevented the outbreak of a third world war. It has played an effective role in keeping several wars limited. It has been engaged in peace-keeping operations in 22 different parts of the world.

It has been contributing to the cause of preservation of world peace, security, and development. The need of the hour is to introduce some reforms in the UN so that it may become more effective and fully capable of ensuring a stable, healthy, and secure world order. The UN Security Council must be expanded and democratized. India, Japan, Brazil, South Africa, and Germany have a strong case for getting permanent memberships in the UN Security Council.

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